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Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics Home

Descriptive Analysis:

The method to numerically describe the features of a set of data is called descriptive statistics. It is, in other words, a summary of the data collected. It is widely used for descriptive analysis of data, along with graphic statistics. The Statistics Help package from Dissertation India provides expert guidance for preparation and presentation of descriptive statistics. We have on board 24 PhD and more than 50 Master's level statisticians, who will guide you through the most difficult statistical analysis.

This is the list of ways to present descriptive statistics or the types of statistical summaries:


Central Tendency or Mean, Mode & Median Distribution or Indicators of the Spread of Data
Outliers or Extremes Range
Non-Confirming Cases    

Following outputs from SPSS windows represent how the results for Descriptive Statistics are presented:

Descriptive Statistics:


A sample of 60 respondents was taken for the survey. Out of 60 respondents, 31.7% were less than 19 years of age, 28.3% of them were between 19 and 27 years of age and 40% of them are above 27 years of age. The table given below shows the information about the distribution of ages of the respondents.


Age_of_Employees


    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Less Than 19 Years 19 31.7 31.7 31.7
  19 to 27 Years 17 28.3 28.3 60.0
  Greater Than 27 Years 24 40.0 40.0 100.0
  Total 60 100.0 100.0  


The table given below shows the information about the distribution of Core Business


Core Business


    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Industrial Products 16 26.7 26.7 26.7
  Retail Products 7 11.7 11.7 38.3
  Consumer Goods 22 36.7 36.7 75.0
  Other 15 25.0 25.0 100.0
  Total 60 100.0 100.0  


From the above chart, we see that nearly 36.7% of the Green Products are consumer goods, and 26.7 of them were related to industrial products

The table given below shows the information about the distribution of years of experience in Business.

Years_of_Experience


    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid less than 1 year 13 21.7 21.7 21.7
  1 to 3 years 8 13.3 13.3 35.0
  3 to 5 years 12 20.0 20.0 55.0
  5 to 7 years 14 23.3 23.3 78.3
  greater than 7 years 13 21.7 21.7 100.0
  Total 60 100.0 100.0  


From the above chart, we see that nearly 21.7% of the respondents have less than one year of experience in Green Products, 20% of them have 3 to 5 years of experience, 23.3% of them have 5 to 7 years of experience and 21.7% of them have greater than 7 years of experience

The table given below shows the information about the distribution of green products in helpful in reducing global warming


Helpful_Global_Warming


    Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Yes 33 55.0 55.0 55.0
  No 27 45.0 45.0 100.0
  Total 60 100.0 100.0  


From the above table, we see that 55% of the respondents believe that green products are helpful in reducing global warming. This indicates that the awareness of global warming is quite high over the respondents taken for the survey.


Crosstab Count


  Consumer_Awareness Total
Good Bad  
Incorporate_Green_Thinking Production Stage 48 0 48
  Product Development Stage 0 12 12
Total   48 12 60

Chi-Square Tests

  Value df Asymp. Sig
(2-sided)
Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig.(1-Sided)
Pearson 60.000a 1 .000    
Conitinuity 53.913 1 .000    
Likelihood Ratio 60.048 1 .000    
Fisher's Exact Test       .000 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 59.000 1 .000    
Number of Valid Cases 60        

1 cells (25.0%) have expected countless than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.40.


Computed only for a 2x2 table



From the above table, we see that the value of the chi-square test statistic is 60 and its corresponding p-value is 0.000. Since the p-value of the test statistic is less than 0.05, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is significant association between ‘Incorporating Green Thinking’ and ‘Consumer Awareness’



Test - 3


In order to determine whether there is a ‘significant association between ‘Incorporating Green Thinking’ and ‘Belief in Green Products’, the chi-square test for independence was carried out in SPSS. The null and alternate hypothesis is given below:

Null Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant association between ‘Incorporating Green Thinking’ and ‘Belief in Green Products’

Alternate Hypothesis: H1: There is a significant association between ‘Incorporating Green Thinking’ and ‘Belief in Green Products’

The SPSS output is given below:


Crosstab Count


    Purchase_Green_Products Total
Incorporate_Green_Thinking Production Stage Price Quality Brand Others  
  Product Development Stage 6 25 17 0 48
    0 0 7 5 12
Total   6 25 24 5 60


Chi-Square Tests



  Value Df Asymp. Sig
(2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 29.010a 3 .000
Likelihood Ratio 31.074 3 .000
Linear-by-Linear Association 21.626 1 .000
Number of Valid Cases 60    

5 cells (62.5%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.00



From the above table, we see that the value of the chi-square test statistic is 29.010 and its corresponding p-value is 0.000. Since the p-value of the test statistic is less than 0.05, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant association between 'Core Business' and 'Belief in Green Products'. Going through the above graph, we see that incorporating green thinking at the production stage improves the Quality and the Brand name of the Green Products.



Test - 4



In order to determine whether there is a significant association between 'Incorporating Green Thinking' and 'Satisfied Green Products', the chi-square test for independence was carried out in SPSS. The null and alternate hypothesis is given below:

Null Hypothesis: H0: There is no significant association between 'Incorporating Green Thinking' and 'Satisfied Green Products'

Alternate Hypothesis: H1: There is a significant association between 'Incorporating Green Thinking' and 'Satisfied Green Products'

The SPSS output is given below:



Crosstab Count

    Satisfied_Green_Product Total
    Yes No Never Used  
Incorporate_Green_Thinking Production Stage 17 26 48  
  Product Development Stage 0 0 12  
Total   17 26 60  

Chi-Square Tests



  Value df Asymp.Sig (2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square 37.941a 2 .000
Likelihood Ratio 39.451 2 .000
Linear-by-linear 26.0029 1 .000
n of Valid Cases 60    

5 cells (33.3%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 3.40





From the above table, we see that the value of the chi-square test statistic is 37.941 and its corresponding p-value is 0.000. Since the p-value of the test statistic is less than 0.05, there is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant association between 'Incorporating Green Thinking' and 'Satisfied Green Products'.

Dissertation writing involves working knowledge of statistics and our team helps bring about expert and comprehensive solutions.