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Dissertation_Harvard Referencing Guide

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Nov 2, 2011

Referencing What is referencing? When writing your assignments and dissertation you will need to refer to material written by others. This is called citing or referencing. There are two main referencing systems in use: the numerical system (or the Vancouver system – see any BMJ paper for use of this system) and the author-date system (or the Harvard system). The School of Health and Human Sciences uses the author-date or Harvard system.


Referencing

What is referencing?
When writing your assignments and dissertation you will need to refer to material written by others. This is called citing or referencing. There are two main referencing systems in use: the numerical system (or the Vancouver system – see any BMJ paper for use of this system) and the author-date system (or the Harvard system).
The School of Health and Human Sciences uses the author-date or Harvard system.
Why reference?
It is important that you show when you have used someone else’s ideas or words. Not referencing properly may make the reader think that you are cheating by claiming someone else’s work as your own. This is plagiarism and it is a very serious offence.
 
Note that plagiarism is not just when you copy exact words from another’s work. Plagiarism also occurs when you re-word someone else’s ideas in your own work and then do not give credit to the original source.
A good rule of thumb is that all statements, ideas, opinions or conclusions etc. taken from another’s work should be referenced, whether the work is directly quoted, paraphrased or summarised.
How do I reference?
Your referencing needs to be consistent and accurate so that readers can identify and locate the material you have referred to.
Generally, referencing can be broken down into two main areas: referencing in the text of your work and the reference list at the end of your work. Any reference in the text of your work must be linked to the corresponding reference at the end of your work (with one minor exception).
Referencing in the text
When referencing in the text you refer to a particular document by:
• Author’s surname, year of publication and page number (i.e. Smith 1990, p.10) – if you use a direct quote.
• Author’s surname and year of publication (i.e. Department of Health 1998) – if you have paraphrased or summarised.
 
Examples of using referencing in the text can be found in any good journal or book but here are a few of the more common ways:
• If the author’s name occurs naturally in a sentence, the year is given in brackets
– i.e. ...as defined by Thomson (1993) the treatment is…
• If the author’s name does not occur naturally, then both name and year are shown in brackets
– i.e. In a recent study (Hancock 1997) management is described as… or …another recent study measured social support by…instrument (Brady 2001).
• If a direct quote is used then the page number is added after the year
 
Adapted from the HS900 information on Referencing Page 1 of 3
 
– i.e. In an early American study Williamson (1954, p.54) defined poverty as “the absence of sufficient goods to maintain life” but since then…. or …practitioners have often argued that “clinics must be accessible to all potential patients” (Vickery 2003, p.65).
• Another way with a direct quote is to use a colon to separate the page number and year
– i.e. In an early American study Williamson (1954: 54) defined poverty as “the absence of sufficient goods to maintain life” but since then…. or …practitioners have often argued that “clinics must be accessible to all potential patients” (Vickery 2003: 65).
• If the same author has published more than one reference in the same year these are distinguished by lower case letters
– i.e. Jones (1999a) or (Jones 1999b)
• If there are two authors both names should be given before the date
– i.e. Smith and Jones (2002) suggest that… or …it is suggested that more time is spent with patients (Smith and Jones 2002)
• If there are three or more authors, the surname of the first author should be given followed by ‘et al’. Note that all author’s name will in the reference list.
– i.e. Johnson et al (1997) or (Johnson et al 1997)
 
Reference list at the end of the text
In the Harvard system the reference list at the end of the text is arranged alphabetically by authors’ surnames. If you have cited more than one work an author they should be listed chronologically, with the earliest first, and by letter (1993a, 1993b) if more than one piece of work was published in a year.
Each reference should include the elements shown in the examples below. Authors’ first names not required. Do not use ‘et al’ in the reference list. The title of the publication should either be in italics or underlined (italics are used in the examples). The format for the most common reference sources are shown below (see the library webpage for referencing other types of documents):
• Article in a journal
– Hartup, W. and Stevens, N. (1997) Friendship and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin 121(3): 335-370. **
• Books
– Weber, J. (2004) Nurses’ handbook of health assessment. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
– Pugh, J.B. and Woodward-Smith, M.A. (1989) Nurse manager: a practical guide to better employee relations. Philadelphia: Saunders.
• Book or report by a government department or other organisation
– Health Development Agency (2003) Prevention of low birth weight: assessing the effectiveness of smoking cessation and nutritional interventions. London: Health Development Agency.
• Edited book
– Basford, L. and Slevin, O. (eds) (1995) Theory and practice of nursing: an integrated approach to patient care. Edinburgh: Campion.
• Chapter in a book
– Furman, W. (1996) The measurement of friendship perceptions: conceptual and methodological issues. In: W.M. Bukowski, A.F. Newcombe and W.W. Hartup (eds) The company they keep: friendship in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 41-65.
 
Adapted from the HS900 information on Referencing Page 2 of 3
 
• Online journal
– Tung, F.Y.T., & Bowen, S.W. (1998). Targeted inhibition of hepatitis B virus gener expression: a gene therapy approach. Frontiers in Bioscience [On-line serial], 3. Retrieved February 14, 1998 from the World Wide Web: http://www.bioscience.org/1998/v3/a/tung/a11-15.htm.
• Website
– Latner, R.B. (1996). Crisis at Fort Sumter. Retrieved February 14, 1998: http://www.tulane.edu/~latner/CrisisMain.html
 
** Journal articles are referenced in a number of ways. All are acceptable as long as the style is consistent in your paper. For example, the article used above may be referenced as:
– Hartup, W. and Stevens, N. (1997) ‘Friendship and adaptation in the life course.’ Psychological Bulletin 121(3), pp. 335-370.
– Hartup, W. and Stevens, N. (1997) Friendship and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin 121: 335-370.
– Hartup, W. and Stevens, N. (1997) Friendship and adaptation in the life course. Psychological Bulletin 121, 3, 335-70.
 
Note the slight changes in using quotes, commas or brackets. Choose a style that works for you and stick to it!
Quotations
When quoting directly in the text use quotation marks. Some examples of how to use quotes:
• Short quotations (up to 2 lines) can be included in the body of the text
– Black (1996, p.10) argues that “defining social support is complex”.
– Black (1996: 10) argues that “defining social support is complex”.
• Longer quotations should be indented in a separate paragraph
– Johnson (1985, p.33) in discussing staff development states that:
“Education is infectious, and staff who previously have recoiled from undertaking a degree course have been encouraged by the success of others.”
• If part of the quotation is omitted then this can be indicated using three dots
– Smith and White (1991, p.88) state that “networking is no longer solely within the male domain . . .”.
 
Secondary referencing
Sometimes you may want to quote a piece of work that has been referred to in something you have read. This generally happens when the original work is not available. You should always reference the book or paper you have read not the original work. In the text you should cite both the original work and the source you have read. Here are some examples of how to do this:
• Smith (2001) cites the work of Goldberg (1972) who developed the General Health Questionnaire.
• Goldberg (1972, cited by Smith 2001) developed the General Health Questionnaire.
• Smith (2001, citing Goldberg 1972) refers to the General Health Questionnaire.
 
In the list of references the work by Smith would be the only one included. Secondary referencing should be avoided if possible.
Adapted from the HS900 information on Referencing Page 3 of 3

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